Astronomy/Physics 228
Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology
(Spring 2012)
Equation sheet (Warning: Use them at your own risk. Marked drowsiness may occur.)
Problem Set 7 (due in class Wed Apr 18)
Reading: Ch 6 of Dodelson
Problem Set 6 (due 5pm Fri Apr 6)
Reading: Ch 4 and 8.18.3 of Dodelson
Problem Set 5 (due 5pm Fri Mar 16)
Reading: (1) Dark Matter Review; (2) Ch 7.1 of Dodelson
Problem Set 4 (due 5pm Fri Mar 2)
Reading: (1) Chapter 3 of Dodelson; (2) Sec 19.3 (pages 1219) of Big Bang Cosmology; (3) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Problem Set 3 (due 5pm Fri Feb 17)
Reading: (1) Chapter 2 of Dodelson; (2) Sec 19.2 (pages 711) of Big Bang Cosmology
Problem Set 2 (due 5pm Fri Feb 10)
Data from Tables 1 and 5 of
Riess et al. (2004) .
Reading: Riess et al. (1998), Perlmutter et al. (1999).
Reading: (1)Sec 13.113.4 of BT
Announcements:
Guidelines for inclass presentations
The purpose of the inclass presentations is to give you a chance to
investigate in some depth a current research topic in cosmology, using
the knowledge you have gained in class. This exercise is important
because, unlike the standard physics courses (e.g. EM, quantum, stat
mech), cosmology is a rapidly progressing subject that is filled with
new (and sometimes wrong) research results and opportunities.
Hopefully you will get a taste of the excitement in this research
field. You will also get to practice giving oral presentations, an
integral part of most scientists' research activities.
Presentations: Each talk is 15 minutes.
The audience is your classmates, so pedagogy is important. All of the
topics below are broad and have consumed many professional
astro/physicists' lives. Use your 15 minutes as if you were a
professor recruiting your classmates to work on your topic. Focus on
questions such as: Why is it important (or is it)? How is it done?
What have we learned? What to expect next? I am happy to link to your
presentation slides so interested students can look at it in more
details later.
For several topics, I have discussed the theoretical background at
length in class. Here you should spend only one slide reviewing it
and then jump into the observations and phenomenology. For other
topics, you should aim for a balance in theory and results. Within
this framework, you have the freedom to design your talk. The linked
references are only meant to get you started. You should explore
beyond it, read a lot, learn a lot, and extract the essential points
to present to the class.
I will meet with each of you the week before the presentation date to
go over your talk outline. Have fun!
Presentation Topics

Ken McElvain (March 14): Mapping dark matter using strong gravitational lensing

Lecture notes
by Narayan and Bartelmann

Current list of multiplylensed systems: CASTLES

CLASS lensing survey
River Snively (March 14): Mapping dark matter using weak gravitational lensing

Lecture notes
on weak lensing by Schneider

Lecture notes
by Narayan and Bartelmann
Todd Doughty (March 19): Cold dark matter: how to find them?

Review article on dark matter

Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Experiment
website

EDELWEISS Experiment
website

DAMA Experiment
website
 Gammaray telescope and dark matter annihilations: Fermi Satellite
Io Kleiser (April 2): Hot dark matter: massive neutrinos; neutrinos from supernovae

2002
Nobel Prize to Davis and Koshiba

Review article on neutrino mass and oscillations

John Bahcall's neutrino website
 Underground experiments: SuperKamiokande, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO)
 SNEWS: The SuperNova Early Warning System
Lauren Weiss (April 4): CMB: primary anisotropy measurements

WMAP website
Nick Hand (April 4): Reionization: how do the first stars and galaxies reionize
the neutral hydrogen and how to detect it?

Short review by Madau: "The Era of Reionization"
Sedona Price (April 9): Galaxy surveys: Baryon acoustic oscillations

Eisenstein's info page
Nikhil Anand (April 9): Galaxy surveys: what have we learned from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Future surveys. NonGaussianity.

Sloan Survey
Nathan Roth (April 11): Cosmological Simulations: Nbody and hydrodynamics; feedback processes

Review by Bertschinger (1998):
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 36, 599

MPA Numerical Cosmology
Dyas Utomo (April 11): Supermassive black holes at centers of galaxies

Summary of observational evide
nce for a supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center by Ghez

Recordbreaking monsters and latest data compilation by our own team

Summary of
SMBHgalaxy formation by Haehnelt
Pierre Christian (April 16):Gravity waves: What sources produce them? Binary black holes

Begelman et al (1980): Supermassive black hole
Binaries

Summary of observational evidence for supermassive black hole binaries
by Komossa

Gravity wave predictions by Wyithe and Loeb:
"LowFrequency Gravitational Waves from Massive Black Hole Binaries:
Predictions for LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays"
Isaac Shivvers (April 16): Gravity waves: How to detect them?

LIGO,
LISA
Instructor:
ChungPei Ma
Office: Hearst Field Annex C11
Email: cpma(at)berkeley.edu
Grader:
Jackson DeBuhr
Office: Hearst Field Annex CNN
Email: debuhj(at)berkeley.edu
Lectures: MW 2:304pm; HFA B1
Office Hours: ChungPei: Mon 45pm in HFA B1; Jackson: Tue 34pm in HFA B26
Main Text:
 Scott Dodelson "Modern Cosmology" (Academic Press 2003; QB981.D634)
 Errata
to Dodelson's textbook : Let me know if you catch any.
Supplementary Texts:
 P. Schneider "Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology" (Springer 2006)
 J. A. Peacock "Cosmological Physics" (Cambridge
University Press 1999; QB981.P37)
 A. R. Liddle and D. Lyth "Cosmological Inflation and Large Scale
Structure" (Cambridge University Press 2000; QB991.I54L53)
Grading:
 50% Problem Sets; 25% Exam;
25% Inclass report
Course Content:
 1. The Smooth Universe: the FriedmannRobertsonWalker Model
 1.1 The Cosmological Principle; Hubble parameter H; scale factor a
 1.2 Friedmann equation; equation of state; radiation, matter, dark energy
 1.3 Density parameter Omega; open, flat, closed models
 1.4 Time evolution of H, Omega, and a
 1.5 Rudiments of general relativity; the RobertsonWalker metric
 1.6 Kinematic properties: distanceredshift, timeredshift, age, angular size
 2. The Bright Side: Thermal History/Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
 2.1 The Planck mass; the ugliest number in physics
 2.2 Thermodynamics of Fermi and Bose gases in an expanding universe
 2.3 The first 3 minutes in 5.5 frames
 2.4 Light elemental abundance: helium, deuterium, lithium,
baryontophoton ratio
 3. The Dark Side
 3.1 Evidence for dark matter
 3.2 Evidence for dark energy
 3.3 Two dark matter problems: baryonic vs. nonbaryonic
 3.4 Dark Matter: cold, warm, hot. What is it? Current experimental searches
 4. The Lumpy Universe: Structure Formation Theory
 4.1 Gravitational instability in a static universe
 4.2 Gravitational instability in an expanding universe
 4.3 Time evolution of density and velocity fields; baryonic Jeans mass
 4.4 Full linear perturbation theory:
general relativistic and Boltzmann approach
 4.5 Photonbaryon coupling; fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background
 4.6 Statistics of perturbation fields: power spectrum, correlation functions, nonGaussianity
 4.7 Nonlinear gravitational collapse: analytical approximations;
numerical simulations
 5. Very Early Universe
 5.1 Successes and problems of the standard Big Bang model
 5.2 Phase transitions: scalar fields; equations of motion
 5.3 Inflation: slowroll; reheating; quantum fluctuations;
the HarrisonZeldovich spectrum
 6. Selected Topics (student projects)
 See above
