Ethics Glossary

Banker Author: Adding an author whose only role was to provide funding (this is research misconduct).

Boss Author: Adding an author whose only role is to be the employer and/or supervisor (this is research misconduct).

Buddy Author: Adding an author solely out of mutual friendship (this is research misconduct).

Double Standards: Having different sets of moral rules and obligations for different categories of people (Opotow 1990).

Fabrication: Making up data or results and recording or reporting them (FPRM).

False Author: Falsifying an author, such as adding an existing person to an author list without their knowledge (this is research misconduct).

Falsification: Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record (FPRM).

Ghost Author: Fabricating an author, such as creating a fictional name in authorship (this is research misconduct).

Gift Author: Using the value of authorship in return for something else of value (this is research misconduct).

Moral Exclusion: Perceiving individuals or groups as outside the boundary in which moral values , rules, and considerations of fairness apply. Those who are morally excluded are perceived as nonentities, expendable, or undeserving. Harming or exploiting them appears to be appropriate, acceptable or just (Opotow 1990).

Plagiarism: Appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit (FPRM).

Rubber Stamp Author: An author whose only purpose is to lend integrity to a manuscript (this is research misconduct).



Federal Policy on Research Misconduct (FPRM)

Opotow, S. 1990, J. Social Issues, 46, 1